Crop Agronomy, Nutrition and Farming Systems

Technologies Generated


  • Coconut-Based Farming Technologies

  • Mineral Nutrition Management [Potassium chloride (KCl) +Ammonium sulfate (AS) fertilization]

  • Integrated Soil Fertility Management [Ammonium sulfate (AS) + Sodium chloride (NaCl) fertilization, Bio-organic fertilizer (BOF), Salt fertilization]

  • Sustainable Cropping System [Sequential Coconut Toddy and Nut Production (SCTNP), Coconut Leaf Pruning (CLP), Coconut yield prediction method]

  • Soil and leaf sampling protocol

  • Software for Fertilizer Recommendation


Techno Guides




Coconut-Based Farming Technologies (Coconut Intercropping Guides)

  1. Coconut-Cereal (Corn) Cropping Model
  2. Coconut-Fruit Crop (Banana) Cropping Model
  3. Coconut-Papaya-Pineapple-Peanut Multi-Storey Cropping Model
  4. Coconut-Vegetable Cropping Model
  5. Coconut-Root Crops Cropping Model
  6. Coconut-Coffee (Robusta/Excelsa/Arabica) Cropping Model
  7. Coconut-Cacao (Cocoa) Cropping Model
  8. Coconut-Lanzones Cropping Model
  9. Coconut-Corn Intercropping
  10. Coconut-Banana Intercropping
  11. Coconut + Gmelina Intercropping System
  12. Coconut-Coffee Intercropping
  13. Vegetable Intercropping under Coconut Palms
  14. Simple Production Economics (Indicative Cost and Benefit/Returns) of Selected Common Coconut Intercropping Systems in the Philippines


Mineral Nutrition Management

  1. Fertilize your Coconuts! Rehabilitation of Coconut Farms thru Fertilization
  2. Optimizing Benefits from Fertilization of Bearing Coconuts by Skipping Annual Fertilization Application Every Three Years
  3. Fertilization Guide for Ordinary Nuts
  4. Fertilization Guide for Embryo Cultured Makapuno Tall Coconut


Integrated Soil Fertility Management

  1. SALT – An Effective and Cheap Fertilizer for High Coconut Productivity
  2. Goat Manure and Coconut Farm By-Products – Recommended Organic Fertilizers for Coconut
  3. Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) on Coconut + Lanzones Agro-Ecosystem in Southern Mindanao, Philippines
  4. Make Your Own Bioorganic Fertilizer from Coir Dust and Animal Manures
  5. Field Application of Common Salt on Cooking Banana Cultivar "Cardaba" Grown under Coconut + Banana Agro-Ecosystem


Sustainable Cropping System

  1. Sequential Coconut Nut Toddy and Nut production Technology – A New Production Scheme for Increased Coconut Productivity
  2. Coconut Leaf Pruning – A Potential Tool for Higher Productivity
  3. The Light Levels under Coconut Canopy and their Practical Applications in Intercropping
  4. UBOD – Underplanting of Young Coconuts on Bearing Palms for the Production of Edible Vegetative Pith or “Ubod”
  5. Sustainable Agricultural Measures for Climate Change in Coconut Agroecosystems


Other Information Materials

  1. Mga Gabay ng Pagtatanim ng Niyog sa Bakuran
  2. Planting and Care of Coconut Palms – Technology Notes
  3. Field Planting and Farm Maintenance
  4. Coconut Nursery Selection and Management
  5. A Pictoguide of Some Nutrient Deficiency Symptoms of Coconut
  6. Coconut Industry Production Status, Growing Zones, Productivity and Potential to Increase Nut Supply in Coconut Farms through Practical and Efficient Farming Technologies
  7. Map of the Philippines Showing Generalized Coconut Nutrition-deficiency Classes and Suitable Multinutrient Fertilizer Grade
  8. Pointers in Coconut Based Farming Systems
  9. Productive and Sustainable Coconut Farming Ecosystems as Potential Carbon “Sinks” in Climate-Change Minimization
  10. Mineral Macro-Nutrients, Micro-Nutrients and Other Elements in Leaves of Malunggay Plant (Moringa Oleifera) Sampled in Some Locations in the Philippines
  11. Coconut Growing Zones and Production Suitability of the Crop
  12. Understanding right, the productivity (yield) of coconut from the Philippines’ Research and Field Experience: A knowledge tool for industry development and management (A research notes)
  13. Producing High Value “Organic and Green” Foods from Coconut Sap at Village Level – Increase your Farm Income thru Product Diversification Scheme
  14. Utilization of Cocopeat in Coconut Production
  15. Natural and Nutritious Sugar, Honey, Juice and Vinegar from Coconut Sap


Ongoing Projects



Agronomy-Soils and Farming System

  1. Response of mangosteen  (Garcinia mangostana L.) to increasing light intensities and different fertilizer combination under coconut + mangosteen cropping system at PCA-DRC 
    Implementing Unit: DRC
    Fund Source: PCA
    Status: For completion

  2. Integrated crop management of Coconut SynVar palms with application of a multinutrient mineral fertilizers under wet growing zone of Southern Mindanao 
    Implementing Unit: DRC
    Fund Source: PCA
    Status: For completion and preparation of terminal report 

  3. Developing Integrated Crop Management in Coconut Replanting Following Underplanting Schemes in Existing Stands at PCA-DRC 
    Implementing Unit: DRC
    Fund Source: PCA
    Status: For completion and preparation of terminal report 

  4. Integrated Soil Fertility Management in Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao
    Implementing Unit: ARC, DRC
    Fund Source: PCA
    Status: Ongoing database development and map generation

  5. Identification and Suitability Assessment of Potential Areas for Oil Palm Agrosystem
    Implementing Unit: DRC
    Fund Source: PCA
    Status: Terminal report preparation

  6. Spatial Mapping of coconut agroecosystems in Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao using GIS in relation to climate  change
    Implementing Unit: DRC
    Fund Source: PCA
    Status: Field assessment and foliar and soil analysis

  7. Assessment of CBFS and Oil palm Agroecosystems in CARAGA, COMVAL and Davao provinces using GIS
    Implementing Unit: DRC
    Fund Source: PCA
    Status: Continuing but need funds for 2015


Techno-Demo Trials

  1. Techno-demo trial on the effect of  community-based fertilizers for  young SynVar underplants and bearing Laguna Tall palms at DRC  
    Implementing Unit: DRC
    Fund Source: PCA
    Status: Ongoing

  2. Establishment and maintenance of vermiculture and vermicomposting facility (DRC)
    Implementing Unit: DRC
    Fund Source: PCA
    Status: Ongoing